Tagged: 2.90

Kidney (part II): Grade 9 Understanding of the kidney’s role in osmoregulation 2.76B, 2.78B, 2.79B

The main function of the kidneys is EXCRETION. They remove urea from the blood in a two stage process described in an earlier post, first by filtering the blood under high pressure in the glomerulus and then selectively reabsorbing the useful substances back into the blood as the filtrate passes along the nephron.

But the kidney has an equally important role in HOMEOSTASIS.   It actually is the main effector organ for regulating a whole load of variables about the composition of the blood (e.g. blood pH and salt balance) but in this post I want to explain to you how the water balance of the body is regulated and the kidney’s role in this homeostatic system.

Why do you need to regulate the dilution (or water potential) of the blood?

If the blood becomes too dilute, then water will enter all the body cells by osmosis (from a dilute to a more concentrated solution).  This net movement into cells would cause them to swell and eventually burst.  Bad news all round…

If the blood becomes too concentrated, then water will leave the body cells by osmosis.  Cells will shrivel up as they lose water into the blood and this will kill them.  Bad news all round….

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Remember: a hypertonic solution has a low water potential and is very concentrated. A hypotonic solution has a very high water potential and is very dilute.

The regulation of the water potential of the blood is a very important example of homeostasis in the human.  It is often referred to as OSMOREGULATION.

The water potential (dilution) of the blood is measured continuously by a group of neurones in a region of the brain called the hypothalamus.

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The hypothalamus is found right next to a very important hormone-secreting gland called the pituitary gland, marked as the red circular structure on the diagram above.  When the hypothalamus detects that the blood’s water potential is dropping (i.e. it is getting too concentrated) this causes the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland to start secreting a hormone ADH into the bloodstream.

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(You might remember that these brain structures appear elsewhere in the iGCSE specification.  The hypothalamus also contains the temperature receptors that measure the temperature of the blood in thermoregulation; the pituitary gland plays a role in the menstrual cycle by producing FSH and LH)

Hormones such as ADH exert their effects elsewhere in the body.  The main target tissue for ADH is the collecting duct walls in the kidney.  ADH binds to receptors on these cells and makes the wall of the collecting duct much more permeable to water.  This means as the urine passes down the collecting duct through the salty medulla of the kidney, lots of water can be reabsorbed into the blood by osmosis.  This leaves a small volume of very concentrated urine and water loss is minimised.

ADH is secreted whenever the body is dehydrated.  It might be because the person is losing plenty of water in sweating in which case it is vital that the kidney produces as small a volume of urine as is possible.

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If you drink a litre of water, what effect will this have on the dilution of the blood:  of course it makes the blood more dilute.  This will be detected in the hypothalamus by osmoreceptors and they will cause the pituitary gland to stop secreting ADH into the bloodstream.  If there is no ADH in the blood, the walls of the collecting duct remain totally impermeable to water.  As the dilute urine passes down the collecting duct, no water can be reabsorbed into the blood by osmosis and so a large volume of dilute urine will be produced.

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This is another beautiful example of negative feedback in homeostasis.

PMG tip:  you can avoid getting confused in the exam about the effect of ADH if you can remember what it stands for.  ADH is an acronym for anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).  A diuretic is a drug that promotes urine production.  They are banned drugs from WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) since they can be taken as a masking drug to help flush out evidence of illegal drug taking.  Shane Warne missed the 2003 cricket World Cup and served a ban for failing a drugs test due to diuretics in his sample.

So an anti-diuretic hormone will reduce urine production.  This means it will be secreted when the body is dehydrated as the blood gets too concentrated.

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Finally remember that it is not the whole nephron that is affected by ADH, just the collecting ducts and part of the distal convoluted tubules.  Most water in the glomerular filtrate is absorbed in the nephron but the collecting duct has a role in “fine-tuning” the volume and dilution of urine.

This is a really important topic to master for an A* in your exam.  Examiners seem to like asking questions on ADH and osmoregulation and often these questions are amongst the hardest marks to get in the exam, and so serve as a brilliant discriminator between A and A* candidates.  Work hard to master this topic and with a little luck from the question-setters an A* grade is within your grasp……

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Adrenaline: Grade 9 Understanding for IGCSE Biology 2.94

Adrenaline is a hormone produced in the adrenal glands which are found on top of the kidneys in the abdomen.

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A hormone is “a chemical released by a specialised gland called an endocrine gland into the bloodstream. The hormone travels around the body in the blood plasma and then causes an effect elsewhere in the body by binding to receptors found on certain target cells”.

You should know some other examples of hormones – testosterone, oestrogen, progesterone, ADH – to name a few.  Please learn this definition too:  it would be wonderful if you got a 3 mark question asking you to define a hormone….

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There are many cells in the body that contain receptors for adrenaline.  This allows the hormone to exert an effect on a wide variety of tissues.  For example there are adrenaline receptors in the pacemaker of the heart and adrenaline will cause the heart to beat faster (more beats per minute) and also with more force.

When is adrenaline released by the adrenal glands into the blood?

Adrenaline is secreted into the blood in times of danger or stress.  It prepares the body to either run away from the danger or indeed to battle against it.  For this reason, adrenaline is often described as a “fight or flight” hormone.

What are some of the effects of adrenaline?

Target Tissue                 Effect

Heart            Increase in heart rate, increase in cardiac output

Lungs           Bronchioles dilate (widen)

Muscles        Arteries in muscle dilate to allow more blood to flow to muscles

Skin/Digestive system   Arteries in skin/digestive system constrict so less blood flows

Liver             Liver breaks down glycogen into glucose to raise blood glucose conc.

Iris                Radial muscles in iris contract causing pupil dilation

The overall effect is that the skeletal muscles are supplied with more oxygen and more glucose so they can respire aerobically.  This allows the muscle to contract more efficiently.

Hormones: Grade 9 Understanding for IGCSE Biology 2.94 2.95B 3.13

Hormones are defined as “chemicals produced in endocrine glands that are secreted into the bloodstream and cause an effect on target tissues elsewhere in the body”.  They play a wide variety of roles in the healthy functioning and development of the body.

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The iGCSE specification only really mentions a small number of hormones so these are the ones I will focus on in this post.

ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)

ADH is secreted into the blood by an endocrine gland at the base of the brain called the Pituitary Gland.  The stimulus for the release of ADH into the blood comes from the hypothalamus (a region of brain right next to the pituitary gland) when it detects that the blood plasma is becoming too concentrated.  This might be caused by the body becoming dehydrated due to sweating.  ADH travels round the body in the blood until it reaches its target tissue which are the cells that line the collecting ducts in the nephrons in the kidney.  ADH increases the permeability of the connecting duct walls to water, thus meaning more water is reabsorbed by osmosis from the urine in the collecting duct and back into the blood.  This results in a small volume of concentrated urine being produced.

Adrenaline

Adrenaline is secreted into the blood by the adrenal glands in situations of danger or stress..  The adrenals are found just above the two kidneys on the back of the body wall.  Adrenaline secretion is controlled by nerve cells that come from the central nervous system.  Adrenaline is often described as the “fight or flight” hormone as its effects are to prepare the body to defend itself or run away from danger.  There are receptors for adrenaline in many target tissues in the body but some of the most significant effects of adrenaline are:

  • affects the pacemaker cells in the heart causing an increase in heart rate
  • shifts the pattern of blood flow into muscles, skin and away from the intestines and other internal organs
  • decreases peristalsis in the gut
  • causes pupils to dilate in the eye
  • increases breathing rate in the lungs
  • promotes the passing of urine from the bladder

Insulin

Insulin is a hormone made in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.  It plays a vital role in the homeostatic control of the blood sugar concentration.  The pancreas will secrete insulin into the blood when the blood glucose concentration gets too high. There are many cells in the body with insulin receptors but the main target tissue for insulin is the liver.

Insulin causes the liver (and muscle) cells to take glucose out of the blood and convert it into the storage polysaccharide glycogen. This results in a lowering of the blood glucose concentration: a good example of the importance of the principle of negative feedback in homeostasis

Testosterone

Testosterone is a steroid hormone made by cells in the testes of males. It is the main hormone of puberty in males resulting in the growth of the reproductive organs at puberty as well as the secondary sexual characteristics (pitch of voice lowering, muscle growth stimulated, body hair grows etc.)

Oestrogen

Oestrogen is a steroid hormone made by the cells in the ovary that surround the developing egg cell in the first half of the menstrual cycle.  In puberty it causes the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics (breast growth, change in body shape, pubic hair etc.) but in the menstrual cycle, oestrogen has a variety of important effects.  It stimulates the rebuilding of the uterine endometrium (or lining) to prepare the uterus for the implantation of an embryo.  Oestrogen also affects the pituitary gland and can cause the spike in LH concentrations that trigger ovulation on day 14 of the cycle.

Progesterone

Progesterone is also made in the ovary but at a different time in the menstrual cycle.  It is secreted by cells in the corpus luteum, a structure found from day 14 onwards after the egg has been released in ovulation.  Progesterone has two main target tissues:  it maintains the thickened lining of the endometrium in the uterus ready for implantation.  Progesterone also causes the pituitary gland to stop secreting the hormones FSH and LH so a new cycle is never started.  It is for this reason that progesterone can be used in women as a contraceptive pill.