Just doing the pGLO practical this morning with my Y12 group and came across a great photo of a fly that has been genetically modified to express a gene from a species of Arctic jellyfish. The fly now makes a protein called GFP that causes it to flouresce green.
Do all organisms have the same structures to read DNA? Can all organisms read other organisms codons or are there any other things that need to be changed?
Good question Charlie – in fact the structures that read DNA are a particular family of enzymes in the nucleus. Bacteria have a slightly different enzyme to eukaryote cells, so the answer to your first question is no. But the answer to your second question is yes. Codons mean the same thing in (almost) every organism as the genetic code is universal.