You might like to make revision notes or cards to address the following questions…. If you managed this, you would be well prepared for your end of term exam.
1. Explain the difference in meaning between cell, organelle, organism, tissue and organ.
2. Understand the relative size of atoms, molecules, viruses, bacterial cells, animal cells, plant cells.
3. Draw two fully labelled diagrams one of an animal cell, one of a plant cell and describe clearly the differences in structure between the two.
4. Understand the structure and function of the following organelles: cell membrane, plant cell wall, nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondrion, sap vacuole, ribosome and also the function of the cytoplasm.
5. Explain why respiration is an important process in all cells.
6. What kind of processes in cells require energy from respiration?
7. Learn the word and balanced chemical equation for aerobic respiration.
8. Learn the word equation for anaerobic respiration in animal cells and in plants/fungi.
9. Describe the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. What is an “oxygen debt” and how is it repaid?
10. Describe the structure of the thorax (ribs, lungs, intercostal muscles, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleural membranes, diaphragm).
11. Understand the mechanism of breathing – both in and out – using diaphragm and the two sets of intercostal muscles.
12. Understand how alveoli are adapted for efficient gas exchange.
13. Understand the process of diffusion and examples of diffusion in living things.
14. Understand how surface area:volume ratios affect the rate of diffusion and why this might be significant for living organisms.
15. Understand the consequences of smoking on the lungs and circulatory systems.
16. Understand how the processes of respiration and photosynthesis interact in the leaves of plants. What is a compensation point?
17. Know the tissue structure of the leaf and the role of stomata in gas exchange.
18. How a leaf is adapted both for photosynthesis and also for gas exchange.
19. Understand the hydrogencarbonate indicator practicals and why different results are obtained in the various set up tubes.