IGCSE Paper 2 specification points

The other thing to focus your revision on for paper 2 are the small number of points (in bold in the specification) that could only be tested in paper 2.

IGCSE Biology specification – bullet points in Bold

  • 2.10 understand how the functioning of enzymes can be affected by changes in active site caused by changes in pH
  • 2.14 understand the importance in plants of turgid cells as a means of support
  • 2.23 understand that a balanced diet should include appropriate proportions of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, vitamins, minerals, water and dietary fibre
  • 2.25 understand that energy requirements vary with activity levels, age and pregnancy
  • 2.32 describe an experiment to investigate the energy content in a food sample.
  • 2.37 describe experiments to investigate the evolution of carbon dioxide and heat from respiring seeds or other suitable living organisms.
  • 2.40 understand that respiration continues during the day and night, but that the net exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen depends on the intensity of light
  • 2.43 describe experiments to investigate the effect of light on net gas exchange from a leaf, using hydrogen-carbonate indicator
  • 2.51 describe the role of phloem in transporting sucrose and amino acids between the leaves and other parts of the plant
  • 2.61 understand that vaccination results in the manufacture of memory cells, which enable future antibody production to the pathogen to occur sooner, faster and in greater quantity
  • 2.62 understand that platelets are involved in blood clotting, which prevents blood loss and the entry of micro-organisms
  • 2.88 understand the function of the eye in focusing near and distant objects, and in responding to changes in light intensity
  • 2.89 describe the role of the skin in temperature regulation, with reference to sweating, vasoconstriction and vasodilation
  • 3.5 understand the conditions needed for seed germination
  • 3.6 understand how germinating seeds utilise food reserves until the seedling can carry out photosynthesis
  • 3.10 describe the role of the placenta in the nutrition of the developing embryo
  • 3.11 understand how the developing embryo is protected by amniotic fluid
  • understand the meaning of the term codominance
  • 3.33 understand that the incidence of mutations can be increased by exposure to ionising radiation (for example gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet rays) and some chemical mutagens (for example chemicals in tobacco).
  • 4.8 describe the stages in the water cycle, including evaporation, transpiration, condensation and precipitation
  • 4.10 describe the stages in the nitrogen cycle, including the roles of nitrogen fixing bacteria, decomposers, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria (specific names of bacteria are not required).
  • 4.15 understand the biological consequences of pollution of water by sewage, including increases in the number of micro-organisms causing depletion of oxygen
  • 5.7 understand the role of bacteria (Lactobacillus) in the production of yoghurt
  • 5.8 interpret and label a diagram of an industrial fermenter and explain the need to provide suitable conditions in the fermenter, including aseptic precautions, nutrients, optimum temperature and pH, oxygenation and agitation, for the growth of micro-organisms
  • 5.16 understand that the term ‘transgenic’ means the transfer of genetic material from one species to a different species.
  • 5.20 evaluate the potential for using cloned transgenic animals, for example to produce commercial quantities of human antibodies or organs for transplantation.
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